Cessna to display seven aircraft and new cabin concept at Paris Air Show

Wednesday, June 13, 2007

The US-based Cessna Aircraft Company, a subsidiary of Textron Inc., is expected to statically display seven of its aircraft and a mock-up of its latest business jet large cabin concept at the 47th International Paris Air Show, dubbed the LCC.

The seven aircraft expected to be on display are the Citation CJ2+, Citation Encore+, Citation XLS, and Citation Sovereign business jets, a Grand Caravan, a 206 Stationair, and a 172 Skyhawk single engine piston aircraft.

Cessna Chairman, President and CEO Jack Pelton said of the exhibit, “There is so much synergy now with other companies under the Textron corporate banner – companies like Bell Helicopter and Textron Systems – that we felt it made sense for us to return as an exhibitor to the Paris Air Show… We are particularly excited to have our large cabin mockup as the highlight of our exhibit.”

Cessna originally announced plans for a new large model of business jet for the Citation range at last year’s annual National Business Aviation Association meeting, and the idea has been in development since, culminating in the new large cabin concept design. The mock-up at the Paris Air Show includes a large galley, seating for nine passengers, a toilet and a dummy flight deck.

Cessna claim the new design, which outsizes their previous large cabin and long-range business jets, would “set a new standard for performance, cabin comfort, passenger amenities and environmental friendliness,” if launched.

Cessna refuse to release details such as exact internal design specifications and manufacturers of avionics and engines unless the new model actually enters production. Cessna Senior Vice President of Sales & Marketing Roger Whyte told reporters that preliminary wind tunnel testing had “fully met… expectations” and that they had “received extremely positive reaction to the performance parameters as well the cabin design of the proposed aircraft from our customer base”, although he warned that there are still a number of processes to be completed before Cessna actually decide whether or not to launch the new model.

Solar Energy Enterprises Should Aim At Global Access Standards

By Weihua

This year, swept from the face of global green wave, solar energy industry will face a full upgrade, competition will become more intense. “98% of the export share of overseas markets for the local solar energy means that business-critical. China’s solar energy manufacturers must make their products comply with global access requirements.” Solar Product Quality Testing Center, Zhejiang Province, Shen Bin, director of solar light in the recently held Hot Products Europe and the United States certification seminar, clearly points out the requirements of the local solar energy companies.

The seminar was organized by the world’s leading quality and safety services Intertek Intertek Group together solar product quality inspection center, Zhejiang, Zhejiang Solar Energy Society co-sponsored.

It is learned that prior to the convening in the seminar, Intertek Intertek Group and the Swedish National Institute of Technology signed a cooperation agreement, and received the American Solar Energy rating and certification company) qualification granted by accredited laboratories, making China the only one within the Ke provide localized services to third party international certification lab. It is reported that, SolarKeymark certification enables enterprises to obtain up to 45% of the substantial subsidies; obtained SRCC certification of products, exported to the U.S. can enjoy no less than 30% of the cost of tax relief. In addition, Intertek Intertek Guangzhou solar energy lab in March of this year and Beijing Jianheng Certification Center (CGC) signed a cooperation agreement, a signed certification of Golden Sun Solar products testing organization, the “export + domestic” full coverage of the service pattern, China’s solar industry is no doubt of great significance.

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In this seminar, experts from Intertek Intertek Group, detailed interpretation of the United States and Europe SolarKeymark SRCC solar water heater these two important export certification standards. Meanwhile, Beijing Jianheng Certification Center – Golden Sun certification certification bodies have also introduced a Golden Sun expert certification requirements and application procedures. 100 solar energy manufacturers on how to successfully export North America, Europe, how to meet the relevant requirements of the domestic market, how to obtain the corresponding subsidies issues discussed.

In 2009, China’s solar thermal, photovoltaic industry contrarian and on the export growth rate of close to 150% year on year. The certification is like a gateway to national passports, on the international market is essential. Zhejiang Shen Fuxin Solar Energy Society, said the Secretary-General: “Select the appropriate certification, enabling companies to reduce time to market, access to appropriate subsidies, reduce the risk of cost. Solar industry and expanding export markets, not only need to make the enterprises to ensure product quality, greater need third-party inspection and certification bodies to assist with the match. ”

At the same time as China’s first professional certification with Europe and the United States qualified third-party laboratory, Intertek Intertek Group has been to help develop industry standards to help companies enhance the value of responsibility. Recently, a number of authoritative institutions at home and abroad, for solar energy products and other new standards to start research, technical standards and certification qualifications are walking in the forefront of the industry.

Intertek Intertek Group, Laboratory for Photothermal Huang Qiang talked about related to export certification services, said: “Enterprise by Intertek to achieve ‘a test, access the world’, the direct beneficiaries of improved authentication service solar manufacturers. We continue with the international organizations to cooperate in more European standards, the U.S. standard test items can be domestic achievement, in the hope that the international standards and local service combined with the strength, by virtue of its perfect for Tiji for Chinese enterprises to provide convenient of ??, helping them Jieyue costs to more competitive international markets. ”

China as the world’s largest production and processing bases, accounting for 75% of global production capacity of solar collectors. However, because the core technology, the main market, three out of raw materials, local manufacturers rely heavily on export markets and government subsidies. Reflected in this issue for enterprises, Huang Qiang said: “The certification test is able to effectively regulate product standards, to enhance product value, which is exactly what local businesses needed. In recent years, the stability of the domestic solar market, rapid growth also reflects the company on dependence on overseas markets is gradually reduced.

About the Author: I am a professional editor from China Suppliers, and my work is to promote a free online trade platform. http://www.frbiz.com/ contain a great deal of information about baby sponge bath,econo heat,massage chair ratings, welcome to visit!

Source: isnare.com

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EU adopts renewable energy measures

Friday, March 9, 2007

File:Angela Merkel SJ8.jpg

European Union leaders on the second day of their summit have agreed on measures to decrease emission of greenhouse gases and to start using more biological fuels. The governments of the 27 countries in Brussels endorsed 3 main binding targets:

  • to reduce greenhouse gas emission levels by the year 2020 by 20% compared to the level of 1990
  • renewable energy should make up 20% of energy consumption by 2020
  • a 10% share for biofuels in the total consumption of fuels in E.U. transport.

This way, the E.U. wants to contribute in reaching the strategic goal of limiting the global average temperature increase to less than 2°C above pre-industrial levels. The individual targets for countries will need to be established based on national starting points and potentials, according to the plan. The plans don’t mention an enforcement mechanism yet.

“We can say to the rest of the world, Europe is taking the lead. You should join us fighting climate change.”

In the summit’s conclusions, the E.U. underlines its ambitions as a leading force in international climate protection. German Chancellor Angela Merkel called the targets “ambitious and credible”.

Europe is prepared to even increase the objectives if other developed countries follow suit, and it invites other countries to come forward with their plans for the environment beyond 2012, when the Kyoto protocol ends. In June, Merkel plans to discuss the measures with the other members on the Group of Eight summit.

The proposal takes into account the sovereignty of individual countries to determine exactly which energy sources they use. More specifically, each member state should decide if they wish to use nuclear power or not. Some countries oppose the use of nuclear energy as an alternative to fossil fuels, and Germany is even in the process of dismantling its nuclear energy production. France on the other hand produces 70% of its electricity in nuclear power plants. [13% of France’s total energy consumption is nuclear.] The report also stresses the importance of nuclear safety in the discussion over nuclear energy.

The summit also asked the European Commission to come up with proposals to reduce energy consumption in lighting and offices by 2008 and 2009. The idea is to replace conventional light bulbs with more energy-efficient alternatives such as the energy saving light bulb.

Another energy-related topic in the conclusions is an agreement on increased security of energy supply. Through member state solidarity and a more interconnected and integrated market, eastern European countries hope to secure their energy supplies in case Russia would cut the supply.

During their two-days summit, the E.U. also discussed economic growth, employment, better regulations and international relations issues.

India and China to develop friendly relations

Wednesday, January 18, 2012

India and China planned to resolve boundary disputes peacefully and develop friendly relations with each other in the 15th round of boundary talks begun Monday. Shivshankar Menon, National Security Advisor, represented India while Dai Bingguo represented China.

To control the Sino-Indian border effectively, Liu Zhenmin, China’s Assistant Foreign Minister, and S. Jaishankar, India’s ambassador to China, signed an agreement titled “Working Mechanism for Consultation and Coordination on India-China Border Affairs”. The text of the agreement, as released by the Indian Ministry of External Affairs, states, “[The mechanism will] undertake other tasks that are mutually agreed upon by the two sides but will not discuss resolution of the Boundary Question or affect the Special Representatives Mechanism.”

The agreement allows live contact between the countries’ foreign offices for problems along the Sino-Indian border, officially called the Line of Actual Control (LOAC). Also, meetings are to be held in each of the two countries alternately, once or twice annually. The two sides see the agreement as an important step in gaining trust and strengthening each other.

Relations between the two countries have not been good since the Sino-Indian War of 1962. The relations lapsed in 2011 due to visa rows and exploration of oil in South China Sea. Further, the Dalai Lama’s refuge in India has caused friction with China. China also claims 90,000 square kilometers of land governed by India in the Tibetan region and India claims 38,000 square kilometers of Kashmir held by China.

Analysts say China is facing both economic problems, and difficulties with neighbouring countries. Its major allies North Korea and Pakistan have their own troubles. China maintains unfavorable relations with other neighbours like Vietnam, Australia, and Japan.

The ‘return to Asia’ strategy of the United States focuses on China, and India figures in it as an important ally.

Dai wrote in a newspaper column, “What we face is a golden period to grow China-India relations. The world has enough space for China and India to achieve common development, as there are so many areas for us to work together”. He further added during the session, “While working hard to develop itself, China is fully committed to developing long-term friendship and cooperation with India.”

Dai claimed trade between the two countries has increased by a factor of 20 in the last ten years. He summarized, “As neighbors and two big countries with a combined population of 2.5 billion, China and India can join hands, seize the historic opportunity, and work together to further advance our friendship and cooperation”.

The boundary talks were to be held in November, but were postponed over Chinese disapproval of India allowing the Dalai Lama into a Buddhist meet in New Delhi.

Execution of two gay teens in Iran spurs controversy

Saturday, July 23, 2005

International controversy erupted after Iranian officials executed two gay teenagers who were originally reported to be convicted of homosexuality, however later reports released by the Iranian government after international furor claimed the conviction was for the rape of a 13-year-old boy. The two were hanged July 19.

Only the age of one of the two executed teens was officially released to the public. He was 18 year old Ayaz Marhoni. The other, Mahmoud Asgari, according to the Iranian Student’s News Agency (ISNA) was aged 17, but other news agencies have reported the teenager’s age as 16. In the original report by the ISNA it was said that the two were found having sex together when they were both 16. It also reported that they were held and beaten for fourteen months before the execution.

The UK-based gay rights group, Outrage! claims the report issued later by the government of Iran is a “smokescreen” to justify killing homosexuals. And one media outlet, Direland, has blasted the media holdings of Rupert Murdoch that includes Fox News Channel and The Times newspaper for publishing the subsequent Iranian government issued allegation of rape as matter of fact without mention of the previous stories before international condemnation bearing no such accusations.

According to Iranian newspapers, the two boys were given 228 lashes for their other convictions of theft, disrupting public order and public drinking before they were hanged in Edalat (“Justice” in English) Square in the Iranian city of Mashhad. The executioners, fearing reprisals, wore masks and anti-riot forces were mobilized to prevent outbreaks of public protests.

Photos of the execution released by Iranian Students News Agency showed the two teens crying in the truck driving them to the gallows in Justice Square, located in the northeastern region of the country.

Iran has been under fire by international human rights groups for executing teenagers in the past, including the 2004 execution of Atefeh Rajabi, a 16-year-old girl convicted of having sex before marriage. Medical reports, not allowed in the court, had stated that she was mentally ill.

Like many other Islamic countries, Iran enforces the religious sharia law, which allows for the execution of children, including girls aged nine or older and boys 15 and older.

Iranian officials have complained that the media has emphasized the teens’ ages. Deputy Ali Asgari said, “Whatever sentence is decreed by an Islamic penal system must be approved, unless proven otherwise… Instead of paying tribute to the action of the judiciary, the media are mentioning the age of the hanged criminals and creating a commotion that harms the interests of the state… Even if certain websites made a reference to their age, journalists should not pursue this. These individuals were corrupt. Their sentence was carried out with the approval of the judiciary and it served them right.”

Both teens were convicted by Court No. 19 under sharia law. The teens are identified only as “M.A.” and “A.M.” Those found having homosexual sex in Iran may face death by either hanging, stoning, cutting in half by a sword, or dropping from a tall building or cliff.

An ISNA report said the couple acknowledged having sexual relations with each other but said they were unaware of laws against homosexuality.

Another report, by Iran In Focus, claimed that the two were hanged not for gay sex, but rather for sexually assaulting a thirteen year old boy at knife point. Neither the original Iranian Student’s News Agency nor an additional report from the National Council of Resistance of Iran had this allegation, said the United Kingdom based Outrage. Direland Press has noted that the accusation of rape in reports came days after international outrage and detailed reports by other Iranian news agencies. They suggest the recent report is a ploy of the Iranian government to justify its actions.

“The allegation of sexual assault may either be a trumped-up charge to undermine public sympathy for the youths — a frequent tactic by the Islamist regime in Iran — or it may be that the 13-year-old was a willing participant but that Iranian law … deems that no person of that age is capable of sexual consent and that therefore any sexual contact is automatically deemed in law to be a sex assault,” said OutRage!’s Peter Tatchell.

“This is just the latest barbarity by the Islamo-fascists in Iran,” Tatchell remarked. “The entire country is a gigantic prison, with Islamic rule sustained by detention without trial, torture and state-sanctioned murder.”

Tatchell told reporters that according to Iranian human rights activists, more than 4,000 lesbians and gay men have been executed in Iran since the ayatollahs seized power in 1979. He said an estimated 100,000 Iranians have been executed in Iran since that time.

Reports also indicated that three other gay Iranian teenagers are reportedly being hunted by police, but they are said to have gone into hiding.

OutRage! requested the international community see Iran “as a pariah state” and to “break off diplomatic relations, impose trade sanctions, and give practical support to the democratic and left opposition inside Iran.”

The United Kingdom has a policy of constructive engagement with Iran, as does France and Germany, primarily directed at the resolution of the Iranian nuclear crisis.

European Union officials have been holding a human rights dialogue with Tehran, but last year the report by Human Rights Watch said that violations had increased since 2000.

In the Unites States, the Human Rights Campaign has called for U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice to condemn the executions.

Screen Printing Vs Logo Embroidery

Screen Printing Vs Logo Embroidery



There are several methods of customizing your shirts including silk screen printing, hand painting, tie and dye, stenciling and reverse stenciling, heat transfers, airbrush and stamping, appliqus and patches and many more. Embroidery and screen printing are the two most popular methods of customizing your apparel, corporate uniforms and promotional materials. One may wonder what the difference is between the two in the manner, process and budget or which one of is better.


Embroidery is the process of decorating a fabric with designs that are hand or machine stitched with thread. With technology, the old handicraft of hand embroidery has been transposed with machine embroidery which is heavily used for product branding, uniform beautification, and even corporate advertising. Small entrepreneurs have emerged with their customization, logo embroidery that started out with the simple hobby of personal sewing and embroidery turned small business. With machine embroidery, the design is uploaded and digitized. This is the process that converts the artwork into stitches then saved in a file that can be read by the embroidery machine and sewn in the material chosen. There are files that are programmed already but if you have your own design then it has to be digitized first. It is very important that digitizing is done by experts to ensure that you get the exact design you envision. A wrong shade of the thread to be used would make a huge difference in how it will look. Take for example a company logo which has several colors. If not digitized accurately may produce a logo that is one shade lighter than your company logo and if it is going to be embroidered on your company uniform could create a huge discrepancy.

Embroidery is often used for company logos or designs for work corporate uniforms, business shirts, corporate polo shirts, golf shirts, lab coats, medical uniforms, jackets, promotional materials such as caps, towels, bags and much, much more.

Different companies have different pricing options. Pricing for the embroidery is usually based on the stitch count. Pricing based on stitch count is usually broken down into per thousand stitches and priced accordingly. The first step would be to upload your design or logo so that a quote will be given to you. Usually you have to pay for the logo set up fee which is better known as the logo digitizing. There are companies though that does not have a logo set-up fee and embroidery pricing would depend on the intricacy of designs and colors to be used on the logo. They also have expert digitizers who will make sure that the exact image you envision will be 100% transferred to your corporate uniforms or apparel.

Advantages of Embroidery:

Embroidery of company logo on corporate polo and business shirts makes it more professional, classic and formal rather than screen printing.

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Even casual apparel that’s custom-embroidered with your logo builds identity and becomes more professional looking.

Embroidery would greatly set you apart from competitors as it gets your business noticed and establishes your corporate image.

Even with repeated washing, embroidery lasts longer on clothing as it does not crack or peel off.

Disadvantages of Embroidery:

One common problem encountered is matching exactly the color of the logo design with the thread because the shade might not be available.

Small intricate details and texts are difficult to read and embroider.

More expensive than screen printing but can be remedied by simplifying your logo.

Screen Printing

Screen printing is the process of transferring a design to a material with the use of a woven mesh and stencil and by forcing the ink thru the mesh onto the printing surface. This is more versatile than traditional printing methods which sometimes need pressure or only works for even or smooth materials.

Screen printing can be used in a wide range of materials such as textiles, ceramics, wood, and paper, glass, plastic and even metal. Thus, one would see screen printing being used on balloons, signage and displays but more commonly used on imprintable t-shirts, promotional items such as mugs, bags, clocks, decals and many more.

The pricing for the screen printing is usually based on the numbers and amounts of colors used in the design. Each screen that is used will have its particular charge as well as a charge for ink per screen. Dark colored items would need a white underbase and thus would have an additional charge for that.

Advantages of Screen Printing:

Screen printing is less expensive than embroidery especially for wholesale and bulk orders.

Screen printing charge is not affected by the size of the design, just by the number of colors.

Screen printing can do bigger designs and believed to be the most versatile as it can be used in different kinds of materials.

Screen printing can recreate very detailed logos and designs.

High end products can be created with shading and gradients.

Disadvantages of Screen Printing:

Does not last as long as embroidery. Screen printed logo could eventually crack or peel off, especially with repeated washing.

Fading may occur after repeated washings.

Some companies require a minimum order.

Each process has their own pros and cons, they have their own appeal, and each has their own uses. When choosing which method to use, first determine your budget and then the effect you want to get and then canvas the different companies that offer embroidery and screen printing service. Establish a good working relationship with the customer care support of the online store so making the necessary queries will be very easy and you get to enjoy the fruits of your labor the soonest no matter what customizing method you and your company used.

The author is a fashion and product consultant for Uniform Point, an online uniforms store. She writes on the side about topics she loves like books, sports, music and many others. Her first interest though in writing is for her online store www.uniformpoint.com and some of her article feature services and products of their online store.

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Screen Printing Vs Logo Embroidery

Thai anti-government leaders escape capture

Saturday, April 17, 2010

In a new setback to the Thai government’s efforts to ease mounting political tensions, protest leaders escaped from their hotel Friday after security forces arrived to arrest them.

One, Arisman Pongruangrong, climbed down three floors using a rope, and was rushed away by supporters thronging the building. The police say Arisman led recent rallies at the national parliament, the election commission, and satellite transmission bases.

Officials earlier Friday said the government is preparing to arrest people linked to violent clashes with security forces last Saturday.

Deputy Prime Minister Suthep Thaugsuban, Thai security chief, announced the raid on the hotel as it was unfolding, saying that a Special Forces unit had closed in around a downtown Bangkok hotel.

“As I am speaking, the government’s special team is surrounding the SC Park Hotel, where we have learned that there are terrorists and some of their leaders hiding,” Suthep said.

A spokesman for the governing Democrat Party, Baranuj Smuthararaks, says arrest warrants have been issued for those suspected of being involved in the violence. Some of the suspects have been identified from photos taken during the clashes.

“Right now the government’s focusing on issuing warrants for acts of terrorism by the people who fortunately have been captured in action [in photos] by both the local and international media,” he said.

According to the New York Times, as many as five protest leaders had been staying at the same hotel as Pongruangrong. Those leaders later appeared together at a protest rally in Bangkok.

“I would like to thank all of the people who saved me,” Arisman said. “You have saved democracy.” The government says armed men infiltrated protester ranks Saturday and fired on troops trying to disperse a rally. Five soldiers and 19 protesters died during the clashes.

Thailand is facing its most severe political crisis in almost 20 years. The anti-government movement, led by the United Democratic Front against Dictatorship or UDD, demands that the government step down and call fresh elections.

UDD supporters, known as red shirts, have held protests in Bangkok for more than a month.

The UDD largely supports former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, who was ousted in a coup in 2006 and remains overseas to avoid a jail sentence for corruption. Mr. Thaksin has strong support among the rural and urban poor, as well among some sections of the army and police.

Some parties in the governing coalition want to set a clear time frame for elections to ease tensions. But the government says it will only call elections once the political situation has cooled.

Magento Online Store Management System}

Magento – Online Store Management System


Sam Stayer

Magento – a system for managing of online stores with ample opportunities, in the world now occupies a leading position for serious implementations of eCommerce.

Magento is a “box-based content management system” written in PHP and using relational databases. Magento is used as a platform for the development of online stores by the company WebiProg, a market leader in web development. There is a paid version with support from the manufacturer and a free Open Source edition, we are developing the community.

Features, benefits and features:

– The ability to specify various attributes (properties) for the goods, grouping the goods into sets, configurable products – products with selective properties (for example, color and size for clothes, the amount of memory for electronics, etc.);

– Sorting and filtering the goods according to the attributes predetermined by the administrator: product comparison, step-by-step filtering, tagging and filtering by tags,

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– From the administration panel you can manage the online shopping network on different domains, languages, with different product assortment, you can flexibly customize the appearance: both at the level of the choice of “themes” and “templates”, and by customizing them.

– Work with different currencies: it is possible to maintain warehouse and management accounting in one currency, and display on the site in another (including at the buyer’s option), it is possible to assign different currencies for price tags to different showcases and manage exchange rates (manual and automatic with updating According to the schedule), as well as work with tax rates at the level of the region, country or postal code, depending on the type of sale (wholesale and retail sales, for example, Tax) and on the type of goods (for example, “tax on medical equipment”),

– Flexible tools for working with prices: multi-level pricing and pricing rules, coupons, sales organization, wholesale discounts;

– Sales reports, by shopping cart, by the list of marked items, by reviews, by tags, by search;

– Support of various methods of payment and delivery, including delivery to several addresses;

– It is possible to work with both individual buyers and with their groups;

– Contact with the buyer: e-mail messages, newsletters by e-mail, customer feedback on products and administration responses;

– List of desires (deferred goods), shopping cart and ordering, personal offices of buyers, recommendation of the goods by one buyer to another, offer to customers of related products (cross-sales);

– Access control system;

– Convenient SEO: full control over HTML markup, it is possible to set an individual HTML template for a particular product or commodity section, you can set individual parameters for search optimization for each page (product, section or text section), allows you to set an individual URL for each product and product section -address, Megento automatically creates for the website a map in XML format for search robots;

– Import and export of data + Magento DataFlow is an object-oriented library that allows the programmer to write its own import and export modules.

– Modularity – the system is initially designed for a modular architecture, the core consists of several modules and is easily extended by third-party plug-ins (paid and free).

WebiProg company specialize in

ecommerce solution

, responsive web design,

custom web development

and creation of online stores of various CMS platforms, the development of individual software, maintenance.

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2006 U.S. Congressional Elections

Wednesday, November 8, 2006


  • 1 Issues
  • 2 Campaigns turn nasty
  • 3 Polling Problems
  • 4 Summaries by state
  • 5 Alabama
  • 6 Alaska
  • 7 Arizona
  • 8 Arkansas
  • 9 California
  • 10 Colorado
  • 11 Connecticut
  • 12 Delaware
  • 13 Florida
  • 14 Georgia
  • 15 Hawaii
  • 16 Idaho
  • 17 Illinois
  • 18 Indiana
  • 19 Iowa
  • 20 Kansas
  • 21 Kentucky
  • 22 Louisiana
  • 23 Maine
  • 24 Maryland
  • 25 Massachusetts
  • 26 Michigan
  • 27 Minnesota
  • 28 Mississippi
  • 29 Missouri
  • 30 Montana
  • 31 Nebraska
  • 32 Nevada
  • 33 New Hampshire
  • 34 New Jersey
  • 35 New Mexico
  • 36 New York
  • 37 North Carolina
  • 38 North Dakota
  • 39 Ohio
  • 40 Oklahoma
  • 41 Oregon
  • 42 Pennsylvania
  • 43 Rhode Island
  • 44 South Carolina
  • 45 South Dakota
  • 46 Tennessee
  • 47 Texas
  • 48 Utah
  • 49 Vermont
  • 50 Virginia
  • 51 Washington
  • 52 West Virginia
  • 53 Wisconsin
  • 54 Wyoming
  • 55 American Samoa
  • 56 District of Columbia
  • 57 Guam
  • 58 Virgin Islands
  • 59 Sources

As of 10:00 p.m EST November 8, 2006, the Democratic Party is projected to have gained control of both the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate in the 2006 United States general elections. MSNBC projects that the Democrats now control 234 seats in the House of Representatives, 16 more seats than the 218 needed to control the House of Representatives as all 435 seats were up for election. In the Senate, where the balance of power is closer, one-third of all seats were up for grab. As of 10:00 p.m. EST, AP and Reuters were projecting that the Democrats had picked up all six seats they needed to retake the Senate, including the seats of incumbents Rick Santorum (Penn.), Lincoln Chafee (R.I.), Jim Talent (Missouri), Mike DeWine (Ohio), John Tester (Montana), and Jim Webb (VA). The Tester victory by less than 3,000 votes was projected at approximately 2 p.m. EST after the State of Montana announced the results of overnight recounts. Democrat Jim Webb has prevailed in that race by slightly more than 7,000 votes, though his opponent has not conceded and a recount may still occur.

Selective Dog Breeding Aims And Background}

Selective Dog Breeding Aims and Background


Steve Evans

Selective dog breeding aims to progressively improve upon the features of a dog breed. It is the other side of the coin to some irresponsible breeders, who reportedly keep them in small cages for long periods without exercise, love, or human contact. No matter how experinced a dog owner is the excessively caged animal will always tend to develop undesirable behaviors and may bark excessively. He may even become destructive and unsociable.

Selective dog breeding has been practised over millenia since early human development, and it has provided the huge range of dog breeds that exist today.

It is thought that selective breeding was begun when humans came across an abandoned wolf cub and took it with them. As this wolf grew older it would become less fearful of humans and therefore be semi-tamed. Humans maintained a population of useful animals around their homes since pre-historic times . They intentionally fed useful dogs, while killing wild dogs, establishing the relationships between humans and specific types of dogs over thousands of years.

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That created the pedigree dog breeds which are well known today. It is important that al breeders breed selectively and choose their male and famail dogs for breeding carefully.

Studying pedigrees and visiting kennels is the best way to select the most compatible stud, and this can consume weeks or even months of a breeders time. And because the onset of a bitch’s season can’t be predetermined exactly, a short-notice trip to the stud will probably be necessary, making proper choice of mates very difficult. Stud owners and owners of the bitch certify the mating to the stud-book or the club. Stud-book and club cannot determine if the named stud has mated the named bitch, also not if the bitch of a breeder (knowingly or not) has been bred by several studs (also out of other breeds) in one season. A lot depends on trust amonst breeders in the dog breeders world.

Mutations can prevent proper development and maturation. Even though particular traits might seem like they are novel, in such cases it is really a loss of information since the animal has stunted development in one trait. Mutations occur spontaneously all the time. Environmental pressure can drive what mutations are favored, but mutations are not caused only by the environment.

Generally selection also loses out because most people just take the first available stud or the cheapest to breed with their female. Not doing extensive research on the medical history of the other dog can cause medical problems that become genetic in that breed. Generally Wolf-Dog is very common figure of Caucasian peoples tradition and legends and is very old in this region (actually it comes from Hittites period). But legend is not to be mixed with reality – it is absolutely evident that Nagazis have not any relation with wolfs. Generally, the wider the variation in the parents, the wider the potential for variation in the litter.

Genes do not act singularily and in isolation. The effect of an allele in the phenotype is as much a property of its genetic enviroment (and for that matter the ‘traditional’ enviroment) as the protein it codes for (look into additive gene effect).

Inbreeding brings out recessive genes in the homozygous condition. Genes that are “homozygous” are genes that have no opposing gene in a sense – in other words, the dog will carry this trait and no other version of the trait. Inbreeding can also lead to a bitch’s decreased fertility or her giving birth to smaller litters. Inbreeding is the breeding of close relatives not separated by more than one generation, i.e, brother to sister, father to daughter. This method is used to concentrate good qualities in the line but may also concentrate bad qualities.

Hip problems with different dog breeds should be identified at an early stage. If you think that smaller dogs are safe from joint problems, you’re wrong. Hip dysplasia is a potentially crippling malady that affects many breeds. Eye, heart and skin problems negatively impact many breeds.

Breeders consider a mixed breed a horrible thing. There’s huge pride in the dog’s lineage, its pedigree, as if breeders were talking about their own family trees, as if they’re descended from aristocracy. Breeders could not escape their responsibility without all the kind “rehomers and rescuers” who take that responsibility for them. The breeders of unclaimed dogs in pounds could be fined, making the breeder responsible, if all pups had to be micochipped. Breeders who sell cheap puppies. It takes a lot of funds and other resources in order to raise healthy puppies.

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Selective Dog Breeding Aims and Background